starting at 1 p.m.
Introductory Materials SGH
Treatment Instructions Other
SGH Instructions & Reference Materials
The materials and articles listed here and on other pages of this web site contain a great deal of useful, up-to-date information that we sincerely hope interested persons and groups will share widely for the benefit of property owners/managers and their hemlocks. Please click here for Usage Rules for SGH Materials.
NEW (Oct. 2021): YouTube video produced by SGH on how to dig hemlock saplings. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBw3YF4anxM&t=5s
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SGH Introductory Materials
■ Brochure - Hemlock Help for Property Owners (updated 8/26/22) -- Description of the HWA crisis, control options, and help available from Save Georgia's Hemlocks.
■ Education & Charitable Service (updated 8/26/22) -- An 8/5 x 11 handout graphically depicting the many aspects of our Hemlock Help Program.
Facts & Fiction (updated 5/15/22) -- A four-part article addressing many of
the myths and points of misinformation about the hemlock problem and solutions:
■ Hemlock FAQs (updated 8/26/22) -- Questions and answers about hemlocks, hemlock woolly adelgids, options for HWA control on private property, choosing the right treatment product and application method, and the services available the the Hemlock Help Program.
■ Hemlock Help Program Description (updated 8/26/22) -- Planning document including problem statement, program goals and objectives, guiding principles, scope, and services of the Hemlock Help Program.
■ How SGH Uses Your Donations (updated 6/28/22) -- A recap of our guiding principles and examples of the educational and service activities supported by your donations.
■ Saving Georgia's Hemlocks (3/14/11 transcript) -- Half-hour video documentary develop by SGH about the hemlock problem and solutions for broadcast on "Common Cup," a program hosted by Jim Geer on Windstream Cable Channel 4. It celebrates the vital role of the hemlocks as a keystone species, explains what's killing them and the disastrous results that may lie ahead, gives information on what property owners can do to save their trees, and highlights the free practical help Save Georgia's Hemlocks can provide. A free digital copy of the program is available upon request through the Hemlock Help Line 706-429-8010. Click here to view the program on-line; please note that the video file is quite large and may take a few minutes to download.
■ Why Save The Hemlock? (5/25/22) -- For anyone who wants to feel the passion for saving the hemlocks or is trying to persuade others that the hemlocks are in crisis and need our help, this document provides some real food for thought.
■ Awareness Post Card -- Available for mailing to neighborhoods and property owners along major waterways (a primary habitat for hemlocks) in north Georgia to raise awareness of the hemlock crisis. Anyone who would like a supply of these may call the Hemlock Help Line.
■ Rack Card (updated 2/9/19) -- A two-sided card providing facts about the hemlock trees on one side and the hemlock woolly adelgid on the other, suitable for placing in stores, chambers of commerce, libraries and other public spaces. Anyone who would like a supply of these may call the Hemlock Help Line.
■ Web Site Map (8/26/22)
Click here for a Selection of Recommended Reading for Nature Lovers.
SGH Treatment Instructions
This section is organized in three parts:
■ Getting Started -- for people who are new to the treatment process.
■ The Details -- for people who know the basics but need the details for the particular product, formulation, and application method they plan to use.
■ Ultimate Short-Cut Instructions -- for people who are experienced in the treatment process and just need a quick reference card or sheet to take to the treatment site.
GETTING STARTED: If you're NEW to the treatment process, it would be wise to start with the "Introduction to Treating Hemlocks." Once you've mastered the basics, then proceed to The Details below. Note: If you plan to use a soil injector to treat your trees, please read "Testing & Adjusting Injector Calibration" for the particular device to ensure that it's working properly before you load treatment mixture into it.
■ Introduction to Treating Hemlocks (updated 5/5/22) -- Complete step-by-step description for assessing the level of HWA infestation, choosing and measuring the trees to be treated, choosing the appropriate treatment product and method of application, estimating the amount and cost of chemical, obtaining the application device and tools, applying the treatment, safety guidelines, and cleanup procedures.
■ Chemicals, Contacts and Sources (updated 3-8-23) -- Consolidated reference sheet containing names of generic treatment products, contact information for places to purchase them, places for borrowing soil injectors, qualified hemlock treatment professionals, and sources for hemlock saplings.
■ CHEMICAL CALCULATOR (updated 3/3/22) -- This tool can be used to estimate the amount and cost of chemical needed for a hemlock treatment project. After the Instructions tab, it contains sheets for Imidacloprid 75 WSP, Imidacloprid 2F/2L, Imidacloprid CoreTect, Safari 20 SG, and a few other chemicals/formulations. A new Summary page has been added as the last tab containing a chart of the DIY cost to treat individual trees in each size range with each chemical. It is an Excel spreadsheet that you should download to your own computer instead of trying to use it on line.
■ EZ-Ject Soil Injector Care & Use Card (updated 12/8/20) -- Quick reference card for anyone who owns, lends, or borrows an EZ-Ject soil injector; laid out 4 to a page for double-sided printing. It can be laminated and attached to a soil injector.
■ EZ-Ject Soil Injector Maintenance-Testing-Adjusting Calibration (updated 5/5/21) -- Easy to follow instructions for determining whether an EZ-Ject injector is pumping out the correct amount of liquid per pump. For the model that dispenses a standard 1/2 ounce per pump, the output should be 6 ounces for 12 pumps of the handle. For the model that dispenses a standard 1/4 ounce per pump, the output should be 3 ounces for 12 pumps of the handle. If calibration testing indicates that the unit is pumping out less than it should, there is no way to mechanically adjust the calibration. Instead, use the Alternate Mixing Instructions included in this document to adjust the mixing ratio to achieve the correct amount of active ingredient per ounce of output.
■ INFESTATION PHOTO CARD (updated 2/24/23) -- Photos showing the branch and the whole tree for hemlocks in progressive stages of HWA infestation, along with recommendations for treatment. The reverse side includes information about the cost of chemical treatment.
■ Kioritz Soil Injector Care & Use Card (updated 6/12/19) -- Quick reference card for anyone who owns, lends, or borrows a Kioritz soil injector; laid out 4 to a page for double-sided printing. It can be laminated and attached to a soil injector.
■ Kioritz Soil Injector Maintenance-Testing-Adjusting Calibration (updated 6/28/22) -- Easy to follow instructions for determining whether a Kioritz injector is dispensing the correct amount of liquid per pump. When the calibration ring in set on 5 ml per pump (i.e., the calibration ring is screwed down as far as possible toward the tank), the unit dispenses 1/6 ounce per pump so the output should be 2 ounces for 12 pumps of the handle. If calibration testing indicates that the unit is pumping out less than it should, use the Alternate Mixing Instructions included in Attachment A of this document to adjust the mixing ratio to achieve the correct concentration of active ingredient per ounce of output. Attachment B of this document contains diagrams and part numbers which may be useful in discussing function or malfunction and possible repair with the Hemlock Help Line.
■ Nu-Arbor 1-Two Root Injector Testing-Adjusting Calibration (updated 6/28/22) -- Easy to follow instructions for determining whether a Nu-Arbor injector is pumping out the correct amount of liquid per pump. The unit is designed to dispense a standard 1/4 ounce per pump, so the output should be 3 ounces for 12 pumps of the handle. If calibration testing indicates that the unit is pumping out less than it should, there is no way to mechanically adjust the calibration. Instead, use the Alternate Mixing Instructions included in this document to adjust the mixing ratio to achieve the correct concentration of active ingredient per ounce of output.
If you ALREADY KNOW THE BASICS of treating hemlocks but need help with the
the appropriate one-page application document below. To
choose the right one:
Note that these instructions are completely consistent with the product labeling but contain only the information specific to treating hemlocks. If you have any questions, please call the Hemlock Help Line 706-429-8010.
Note: This is the most economical formulation for large numbers of trees/diameter inches.
■ Applying Imidacloprid 2F-2L by EZ-Ject Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 2F-2L by Foliar Spray (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 2F-2L by Kioritz Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 2F-2L by Nu-Arbor Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 2F-2L by Soil Drench (updated 8/16/22)
■ Hemlock Treatment for Dummies -- Applying Imidacloprid 2F or 2L by Soil Drench (6/28/22)
■ Optimized Application of Imidacloprid 2F-2L by Soil Drench (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 4F by EZ-Ject Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 4F by Foliar Spray (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 4F by Kioritz Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 4F by Nu-Arbor Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 4F by Soil Drench (updated 6/28/22)
Imidacloprid 75 WSP (water soluble powder) in 1.6 oz packaging
Note: This is the most commonly stocked formulation in retail stores.
■ Applying Imidacloprid 75 WSP 1.6 oz by EZ-Ject Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 75 WSP 1.6 oz by Foliar Spray (updated 8/17/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 75 WSP 1.6 oz by Kioritz Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 75 WSP 1.6 oz by Nu-Arbor Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 75 WSP 1.6 oz by Soil Drench (updated 8/16/22)
■ Optimized Application of Imidacloprid 75 WSP by Soil Drench (updated 6/28/22)
Imidacloprid 75 WP (wettable powder)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 75 WP by EZ-Ject Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 75 WP by Kioritz Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Imidacloprid 75 WP by Nu-Arbor Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
Imidacloprid 75 WP by Soil Drench (updated
Note: This formulation sold as CoreTect is primarily for back-country locations without access to water.
■ Optimized Application of Imidacloprid by Tablets (updated 6/28/22)
■ Quick Reference Card for CoreTect (3/21/20)
Imidacloprid (low concentration liquids)
Note: Liquid formulations such as Bayer Advanced Tree & Shrub and similar Ortho products that contain only 0.74%, 1.47%, or 2.94% active ingredient are primarily for very small trees -- containerized saplings in 1-to 3-gallon pots or saplings up to 6 feet tall growing in the ground. Yearly treatment is required with these low concentration products.
Low Concentration Liquids by Soil Drench (updated 2/1/23)
Safari - Dinotefuran 20 SG (soluble granules)
Note: This product is recommended for very large (>20" in diameter at breast height) moderately infested trees or heavily infested trees of any size.
■ Applying Safari 20 SG by EZ-Ject Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Safari 20 SG by Kioritz Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Safari 20 SG by Nu-Arbor Soil Injector (updated 6/28/22)
■ Applying Safari 20 SG by Soil Drench (updated 6/28/22) - includes small custom batch instructions
■ Applying Safari 20 SG by Trunk Spray (updated 6/28/22) - includes small custom batch instructions
Transtect - Dinotefuran 70 WSP (water soluble powder)
(Note: This product is similar to Safari 20 SG and comes in water-soluble pouches, but it's hard to find in stores in the southeast.)
■ Applying Transtect 70 WSP by Kioritz Soil Injector (updated 2/2/23)
■ Applying Transtect 70 WSP by Nu-Arbor Soil Injector (updated 2/2/23)
■ Applying Transtect 70 WSP by Soil Drench (updated 2/2/23)
Transtect 70 WSP by Trunk Spray (updated
Zylam - Dinotefuran 10% Liquid
(Note: This product is available on the Internet.)
■ Applying Zylam 10% Liquid by Kioritz Soil Injector (3/6/23)
■ Applying Zylam 10% Liquid by Nu-Arbor Soil Injector (3/6/23)
■ Applying Zylam 10% Liquid by Soil Drench (3/6/23) - includes small custom batch instructions
■ Applying Zylam 10% Liquid by Trunk Spray (3/6/23) - includes small custom batch instructions
ULTIMATE SHORT-CUT INSTRUCTIONS: If you're experienced in the treatment process and just need a quick reference card or sheet to take to the treatment site, choose one of the items below.
■ Quick Reference Mixing & Dosing CARD - EZ-Ject (3/6/21) -- This document consists of two pages of 4" x 5.25" cards that can be printed back-to-front, cut, and laminated as wallet/pocket cards. One side shows the mixing ratios for Imidacloprid powder and liquid formulations listed above and the dosing rates for EZ-Ject soil injection (models with standard 1/4 and 1/2 ounce output per pump) and soil drench. The other side contains the mixing ratios for Safari 20 SG and the dosing rates for EZ-Ject soil injection (models with standard 1/4 and 1/2 ounce output per pump), soil drench, and trunk spray, as well as the mixing ratio and dosing rates for small custom batch soil drench or trunk spray.
* Quick Ref CARD for EZ-Ject with 1/4 Ounce Output Only (3/6/21) - Imidacloprid and Safari. SGH uses the 1/4 ounce output model.
* Quick Ref CARD for EZ-Ject with 1/2 Ounce Output Only (3/6/21) - Imidacloprid and Safari. Some, but not all, Georgia Forestry Commission offices and other injector lenders have this model.
■ Quick Reference Mixing & Dosing SHEET - EZ-Ject (updated 5/25/22) -- This document consists of two pages that can be printed back-to-front. One side shows the above information plus application instructions for various formulations of Imidacloprid. The other side contains the above information plus application instructions for Safari.
* Quick Ref SHEET for EZ-Ject with 1/4 Ounce Output Only (updated 9/22/21) - Imidacloprid and Safari. SGH uses the 1/4 ounce output model.
* Quick Ref SHEET for EZ-Ject with 1/2 Ounce Output Only (updated 9/22/21) - Imidacloprid and Safari. Some, but not all, Georgia Forestry Commission offices and other injector lenders have this model.
■ Quick Reference Mixing & Dosing CARD - Kioritz (updated 8/4/20) -- This document consists of two pages of 4" x 5.25" cards that can be printed back-to-front, cut, and laminated as wallet/pocket cards. One side shows the mixing ratios for Imidacloprid powder and liquid formulations listed above and the dosing rates for Kioritz soil injection and soil drench. The other side contains the mixing ratios for Safari 20 SG and the dosing rates for Kioritz soil injection, soil drench, and trunk spray, as well as the mixing ratio and dosing rates for small custom batch soil drench or trunk spray.
■ Quick Reference Mixing & Dosing SHEET - Kioritz (updated 8/4/20) -- This document consists of two pages that can be printed back-to-front. One side shows the above information plus application instructions for various formulations of Imidacloprid. The other side contains the above information plus application instructions for Safari.
■ Quick Reference Mixing & Dosing CARD - Nu-Arbor (updated 8/4/20) -- This document consists of two pages of 4" x 5.25" cards that can be printed back-to-front, cut, and laminated as wallet/pocket cards. One side shows the mixing ratios for Imidacloprid powder and liquid formulations listed above and the dosing rates for Nu-Arbor soil injection and soil drench. The other side contains the mixing ratios for Safari 20 SG, the dosing rates for Nu-Arbor soil injection, soil drench, and trunk spray, as well as the mixing ratio and dosing rates for small custom batch soil drench or trunk spray.
■ Quick Reference Mixing & Dosing SHEET - Nu-Arbor (updated 8/4/20) -- This document consists of two pages that can be printed back-to-front. One side shows the same information as the Mixing & Dosing Card plus application instructions for various formulations of Imidacloprid. The other side contains the same information as the Mixing & Dosing Card plus application instructions for Safari.
Other SGH Instructions & Reference Materials
■ Adopting Hemlocks from SGH (updated 2/8/23) -- SGH does not sell its hemlock saplings, but we offer them for adoption. See this document for information about our saplings adoption program and a table of usually available sizes and suggested donations.
■ Becoming a Professional Pesticide Applicator in Georgia (updated 3/6/23) -- This document is intended for individuals who may be considering getting a pesticide applicator license in Georgia. It provides complete information on the licensing requirements for the three levels of licenses, obtaining the study materials and taking the exam, acquiring a business license and liability insurance, equipment and treatment materials, license renewal schedule, and a cost summary.
■ Digging Hemlock Saplings (updated 8/26/22) -- Complete step-by-step instructions for digging hemlock saplings 1' to 5' tall from the woods. Also see Digging Hemlock Saplings - Illustrated (updated 6/28/22).
■ Maintaining Potted Hemlocks in Nursery (NEW 6/28/22) -- Complete instructions for setting up a sapling nursery plus a schedule and instructions for seasonal and annual maintenance tasks.
■ Pests of Hemlocks - Fungal Diseases (updated 6/28/22) -- A compilation of photos and text excerpted primarily from reliable research articles; includes symptoms/identification, suggested management, and links to reference material for several of the most common fungal diseases afflicting the hemlock.
■ Pests of Hemlocks - Insects & Mites (updated 6/28/22) -- A compilation of photos and text excerpted primarily from research articles; includes symptoms/identification, suggested management, and links to reference material for several of the most common insects/mites attacking the hemlock.
■ Planting & Care of B&B Hemlock Sapling (updated 2/8/23) -- Instruction for the specific requirements when planting a balled and burlapped hemlock, which are slightly different from planting a potted or bare-root tree.
■ Planting & Care of Bare-Root Hemlock Sapling (updated 2/8/23) -- Instruction for the specific requirements when planting a bare-root hemlock, which are slightly different from planting a potted or balled and burlapped tree.
■ Planting & Care of Potted Hemlock Saplings (updated 2/8/23) -- Instructions to plant and care for potted hemlock saplings 18" to 6' tall in landscape or forest settings. Also see the Planting & Care of Hemlock Saplings quick reference card (updated 8/27/22) that we attach to potted saplings being offered for adoption.
■ Planting & Care of Hemlock Seedlings (updated 8/27/22) -- Quick reference card of easy-to-follow directions for children and their families to plant and care for hemlock seedlings 6" to 18" tall that have been temporarily potted in biodegradable newspaper cups.
■ Potting Hemlock Saplings (updated 2/8/23) -- Complete step-by-step instructions for potting freshly dug hemlock saplings for future planting or offering for adoption. Also see Potting Hemlock Saplings - Illustrated (updated 2/8/23).
■ Pruning Hemlocks (updated 2/8/23) -- Complete step-by-step instructions with illustration for pruning hemlock hedges and individual hemlock trees.
■ Purchasing Hemlocks (updated 2/8/23) -- Advice and partial list of sources for retail purchase of hemlocks for landscape planting or reforestation.
■ Transplanting a Hemlock (updated 2/7/23) -- Complete step-by-step instructions for transplanting a hemlock 18" to 5' tall that is freshly dug from the woods.
■ Water Needs of Trees (updated 2/10/19) -- An explanation and chart indicating how much water trees need per week, based on the soil area within their drip line.
SGH Materials for Helping Others
■ Environmental Study Areas & Careers (8/26/22) -- This document is designed for individuals interested in a wide range of careers related to agriculture and the environment. The list is by no means comprehensive, but conceivably any of the degree programs or study areas could lead toward any of the careers and employment opportunities.
■ Healthy Hemlocks Keep Trout Happy (updated 8/26/22) -- A handout highlighting the many ways streamside hemlocks help maintain the conditions necessary for healthy trout populations and what volunteers can do to participate in the efforts to preserve or restore hemlocks along Georgia's trout streams and in the forests.
■ Helping on Georgia's Public Lands (updated 2/14/22) -- Information on opportunities to treat hemlocks in the National Forest and on state lands; also a list of the names and contact information for public land managers with the U. S. Forest Service, Georgia Forestry Commission, and Georgia State Parks for those who would like to volunteer for projects helping hemlocks in other ways.
■ Hemlock Restoration on Trout Streams (updated 5/25/22) -- A description of our joint initiative with Trout Unlimited to create, enhance, or restore a healthy hemlock population along key waterways in support of watershed protection and water; quality; the numbers, health, and diversity of the aquatic inhabitants (especially trout); the public’s ability to access and enjoy these areas; and the economic impact of the related tourism and recreation.
■ Neighborhood Hemlock Help Planning Guide (updated 6/8/22) -- A guide for neighborhood leaders to use as a flexible framework for developing their own Neighborhood Hemlock Help Plan; used effectively in both large and small communities.
■ Sanctuary in Crisis (updated 8/26/22) -- This handout was created for churches and other faith-based groups that have environmental stewardship as part of their mission. It's designed to stimulate both thought and action on behalf of the hemlocks.
■ Volunteer Opportunities (updated 8/26/22) -- A partial list of service/educational activities for volunteers who want to learn more about current conservation efforts, participate in meaningful work that benefits the local community, and form friendships with other environmentally conscious people.
■ Youth Volunteer Opportunities (updated 8/26/22) -- A partial list of service/educational activities specially designed to help young people learn about conservation, participate in meaningful work, and develop a lifelong commitment to environmental stewardship. In many cases, young people can earn service credits toward course/club requirements.
■ Hemlock Happenings - Summer 2021 -- Scholarships and gifts to support the future; A busy year in 2021; Much accomplished in 2020; A few highlights from 2020; Trees treated 2009 - 2020; board matters looking back and ahead; Looking for more Leadership Team members; Strategies and priorities for 2021; Calendar Corner 2021; Earth Day events 2021; Arbor Day events 2021; Beautiful places we get to work in; Do trees have a heartbeat; The truth about lichens; When plants say ouch; Eastern hemlocks face extinction - a tiny fly could save them; Hope for the hemlocks - new tactics; Focus on Facilitators; SGH tee shirts and other logo items; More ways you can help; Big hemlocks and where to find them; Facilitators staying active; A few reminders; A very special thank you to Cleveland Tool & Design and Mr. Natural Soil Products.
■ Hemlock Happenings - Spring 2020 -- News from the front; New hemlock hybrid that withstands HWA; Paddling for Hemlocks; Much accomplished in 2019; A good start to 2020, before the pause; Calendar Corner; Celebrate Earth Day 50 all year; USFS begins reopening of trails and recreation areas; Hemlock photos wanted; Actions for the planet during a pandemic; Ways to reduce your carbon footprint; Get your community to take action; Responsible water conservation; Warming winters benefit HWA; Climate consequences of hemlock decline; Can planting more trees save the planet? Planting a billion trees; Estimating the age of hemlocks; Excellent new brochure; Hemlock - poison or not? While you're home, help your hemlocks; Soil injectors for borrowing; Soil injectors for purchase; Hemlock saplings available for adoption; New USFS map and list of HCAs; Do you have a SGH tee-shirt? Leave no trace; Have you noticed? Amazon Smile benefits SGH; Photos by David Wasileski
■ Hemlock Happenings - Summer 2019 -- News from the front; Hemlock Camp Meeting was wonderful; Calendar Corner; long-serving Board Member Frank Gheesling retires; Camp Meeting Recap & photos; Progress Report through Q2; Hemlock Restoration Project; Opportunities to Serve: Paddling for Hemlocks, Project Chimps, Mountain Heritage Program, Saplings Program, and Teaching; Readers & Viewers Digest; Opportunities for Leadership; Amazon Smile benefits SGH
■ Hemlock Happenings - Year-end 2018 -- News from the front, Highlights: Ten Years of Savings Hemlocks, Hemlock Camp Meeting, Calendar Corner, Summary of 2018 activities, Rosellinia Needle Blight, Hemlock cone pendant, Normal needle shed, Helping your hemlocks stay healthy this winter, Facilitator call to action, How to prune a hemlock hedge, How to prune an individual hemlock, Meet the invasive insect that is changing an entire forest bird community, Carolina hemlock populations: isolated and imperiled, Do trees talk to each other? U. S. National Climate Assessment released, Other interesting web sites, TLC for soil injectors, Advice for choosing an EZ-Ject Lite injector, Maintaining a Kioritz soil injector, Help wanted
■ Hemlock Happenings - Year-end 2017 -- News from the front, Highlights: Hemlock Camp Meeting, Highlights: Hike & Help the Hemlocks, New soil injector, Hemlock cone pendant, Calendar Corner, Hemlock restoration project on trout stream, Hemlock treatment at Holly Creek Preserve, Focus on Facilitators: questions & answers, Summary of 2017 activities, Facilitators: call to action, EZ-Ject soil injector flyer
■ Hemlock Happenings - Summer 2015 -- Hike & Help the Hemlocks September 26, News from the front, Hemlock Help Program expanding, Partnership with USFS growing, Calendar Corner, Citizen Scientists called to action, Hemlock needles falling, Hemlock Camp Meeting brings hopeful news, Some thoughts for the future, Focus on Facilitators, REQUIRED refresher training, Publicize injector repair service, Reminder - test injector before use, Mix chemicals differently for Nu-Arbor injector, New version of Dinotefuran found, Looking for a few great people (Board Member, Treasurer, and more Lead Facilitators), Kioritz soil injectors wanted - dead or alive!
■ Hemlock Happenings - Summer 2014 -- Hemlock Help Program growth, News from the front, More trouble for hemlocks: needle blight and spruce spider mites, Calendar Corner, Annual meeting announced, Hemlock treatment projects announced, Annual Hike & Help the Hemlocks announced, Festival participation announced, Hemlocks available for adoption, Photos requested, Education Station: list of training classes-dates-locations, Continuing education credits available for professionals, Yea youth, Grants for pesticide licenses, Focus on Facilitators: strengthening education and service, Reading the trees, Injector repair service, Calibration and adjustment
■ Hemlock Happenings - Fall 2012 -- Vote now for SGH to win Cox Conserves Heroes Award, News from the front: new beetle approved for release, Annual Hike & Help the Hemlocks, Helton Creek Falls hemlock treatment scheduled for 11/10, Very productive festival season, Kudos to Blue Ridge and BMTA for trail town designation, Hemlock facts and fiction, Welcome Chris Curtin to SGH Board, New advice for soil injection, User review of Nu-Arbor soil injector, Fungal pests that attack hemlocks
■ Hemlock Happenings - Summer 2012 -- SGH helps USFS treat trees in national forest, Soil injectors can be repaired, Hemlock Help Program expands to Dawson and Pickens Counties, Hike & Help the Hemlock on 9/29, Foxfire Mountaineer Festival on 10/6, Georgia Apple Festival on 10/13 and 10/14, Master gardeners can earn hours, Imidacloprid and water safety, Unique opportunities to serve, Liquid Imidacloprid products, What's new on the web site, Farewells and welcomes, Other insects attack hemlocks
■ Hemlock Happenings - Spring 2012 -- Dedicated team saves Lake Rabun hemlocks, News from the front, Hemlock help for public lands, Input sought on HCAs, Annual meeting announced, Hike and Help for the Hemlocks announced, Hemlock Help Program coming to Dawson and Pickens Counties, New beetle needs your help, Imidacloprid use and honeybees, New product recommendation, Quick reference infestation card, Update on Kioritz injector, Chemical calculator, Foliar spray only in special cases, Update on Nu-Arbor injectors, Reminders
■ Hemlock Happenings - Fall 2011 -- Hike & Hike for the Hemlocks, Advice from the front, Sharing the hemlock message at Apple Festival, Scouts save hemlocks at Foxfire, Awareness is key, Treatment help is available, Technical tips, Calendar being set for 2012.
■ Hemlock Happenings - Summer 2011 -- Report on annual meeting and membership picnic, News from the front, Volunteer Facilitator program needs you, Hike for the Hemlocks fall event, Hemlock documentary DVD available, Technical tips, Communities take action, SGH Board opportunity.
■ Hemlock Happenings - Spring 2011 -- Spring is prime time to treat hemlocks, News from the front, SGH hemlock documentary on Windstream week of March 14, Awareness campaign, Free clinics and presentations, Kioritz injectors discontinued, Calendar, Volunteers needed, Environmental heroes documentary, Charitable service offered, New waterfall walks book, Loss of a friend, SGH Board member search.
Other Articles and Publications
■ Another Challenge to Eastern Forests of North America: Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, Climate Change, and the Loss of Hemlock -- Abstracts of several research papers presented at 95th ESA Annual Meeting in Pittsburgh, August 2010
■ A silver lining to winter weather for TN forests -- The frigid temperatures experienced in parts of Tennessee this season - and likely future visits by Jack Frost - have at least one benefit: Low temps help kill the hemlock woolly adelgid, a non-native species responsible for killing thousands of mature hemlock trees. February 5, 2018
■ Atlanta Audubon Society Brochure - Help Save the Eastern Hemlock -- Brochure prepared by Atlanta Audubon Society, 2009
■ Beetles Save Needles Guide, developed by Blue Ridge RC&D as part of the Hemlock Restoration Initiative, June 2015. Also see Nine Main Points about HWA & its Natural Enemies, by Dr. Richard McDonald, June 2015; The Killing Power of Laricobius nigrinus Impacting the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, by Dr. Richard McDonald, June 2015
■ Botanists at Arnold Arboretum discover new species of hemlock -- Botanists at Harvard’s Arnold Arboretum discovered a new species of Eastern Asian hemlock tree with a natural resistance to a notorious invasive insect, according to a study published in Dec. 2017. The Ulleungdo hemlock is native to an island off the coast of South Korea and is so rare that it is already being considered for an endangered species listing. Senior Research Scientist Emeritus Peter Del Tredici, a member of the team that discovered the tree, said the process leading up to the discovery actually began at the Arnold Arboretum—a botanical garden and research center funded by Harvard—several years before. February 6, 2018
■ Carolina Hemlock Information -- Collected articles from Virginia Tech, U. S. Forest Service, and other sources, November 2009
■ Churches Helping to Save Hemlocks -- Georgia Interfaith Power and Light blog posted 3-16-11 describes one church's earth ministry initiative for hemlock awareness and preservation and their desire to share the movement with other faith-based groups.
■ Decline of Hemlocks and Northern Flying Squirrels Related -- Article by David Pacchioli published on Penn State's official news web site, January 2011
■ Development of Resistant Hybrid Hemlocks -- Research summary by Michael Montgomery, Susan Bentz, and Richard Olsen, July 2010
■ Duct Tape & Explosives to Remove Dead Hemlocks in Joyce Kilmer Memorial Forest -- 3 articles by The Associated Press, Don Hendershot, and Nancy Bompey, November 2010
■ Eastern Hemlock Information -- Collected articles from Virginia Tech, U. S. Forest Service, and other sources, November 2009
■ Eastern Hemlocks Face Extinction -- Article by Zoya Teirstein about the silver fly, a tiny insect that could help save the hemlocks, August 2021
■ Economic Impact of HWA on Residential Property Values -- Research paper by Thomas P. Holmes, Elizabeth A. Murphy, and Denise D. Royle, 2005
■ Elongate Hemlock Scale -- Article published on the U. S. Forest Service's Forest Threats web site, December 2010
■ Environment Assessment: Conservation of Eastern Hemlock by Suppression of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest -- USFS study report by Charles L. Myers, August 2005. Also see Decision Notice 2005 and Map of Selected Alternative 2005.
■ Environment Assessment 2010: Suppression of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestations in the Pisgah National Forest and Nantahala National Forest -- USFS study report by Marisue Hilliard, August 2010
■ Ex Situ Gene Conservation of Carolina and Eastern Hemlock -- Research paper by Robert M. Jetton, W. Andrew Whittier, William S. Dvorak, and Kevin M. Potter, Camcore and USFS, 2009
■ Forest Facts -- statistics compiled by the U. S. Forest Service on how America relies on healthy forests, August 2009
■ Forest fungus factory: interview -- Transcript of interview with Scott Costa on new fungal treatment of HWA, July 2011
■ Forest fungus factory: new technology fights hemlock pest -- Report on new fungal treatment of HWA, developed by Dr. Scott Costa of University of Vermont, June 2011
■ Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Management in Georgia -- a publication covering why hemlocks are important, what the woolly adelgid is and does, the HWA lifecycle, how HWA is being managed in Georgia, and the roles of the University of Georgia and Georgia Forestry Commission in these efforts. November 2019.
■ Hope for Hemlocks: New Tactics -- Article by Ad Crable about recent discoveries giving researchers hope for the hemlocks, including the discovery of adelgid-resistant survivor hemlocks in New Jersey, a successful crossbreeding project to produce more adelgid-resistant trees, and the introduction of two new insects that feast on adelgids, November 2020
■ HWA Lifecycle in Georgia -- Month-by-month chart prepared by Mark Dalusky, Research Coordinator, Entomology Department, University of Georgia, 2007
■ Love and Mourning for the Hemlocks -- Article by Nan K. Chase published in The Laurel of Asheville, February 2011
■ New Hemlock Hybrid Withstands Killing Insect -- Exciting announcement from the USDA about "Traveler," the new hemlock hybrid that is resistant to HWA. 2020
■ Pest Appearance Timetable -- Month-by-month chart of pest appearance including hemlock woolly adelgid, prepared by Merrifield Garden in Virginia, July 2010
■ Plant Role in Cleaning Air Pollution -- Article by Thomas Karl published in Greenhouse Management Magazine, December 2010
■ Of Trout and Trees -- Article by Nathaniel Tripp published in Northern Woodlands. In southern Appalachia, they still call brook trout the “hemlock trout” because they’re mainly found in the cold water and deep shade of the hemlock forest. February 2011
■ Scientist Develops Product to Stall HWA -- Text of interview by Vermont Public Radio with Dr. Scott Costa of University of Vermont describing an organic fungal product that may help suppress the spread of HWA, broadcast June 30, 2011
■ The Truth about Lichens -- Article by UGA Extension Service Agent Carol Knight about what the presence of lichens on a tree does and doesn't mean, April 2019
■ Tree Owners Manual -- A publication of the USDA Forest Service covering installation, maintenance, protection, removal and other topics for tree owners. July 2010
■ Tree Planting Guide for B&B Trees -- Instructions written by arborist John Shearouse covering the steps for planting balled and burlapped trees properly.
■ Tip Blight on Eastern Hemlocks -- Pest alert bulletin by Margaret Miller-Weeks and William D. Ostrofsky, May 2010
■ Trees Have a "Heartbeat" -- Article written by Brandon Prows about the circadian rhythm of trees during the night, September 2018
■ When plants say "OUCH" -- Research by the Institute of Applied Physics, Bonn, describing discoveries made by eavesdropping on the "secret voices" of plants, February 2002
■ Wildlife Habitat Associations in Eastern Hemlock -- Research paper by Mariko Yamasaki, Richard M. DeGraaf, and John W. Lanier, July 2008
Videos and Slide Presentations
■ NEW (Oct. 2021): YouTube video produced by SGH on how to dig hemlock saplings. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBw3YF4anxM&t=5s
■ Basal Trunk Spray Using Safari -- Instructional video produced by Valent Corporation demonstrates how to do basal trunk spray with Safari 20 SG. Although it features ash trees instead of hemlocks, the technique is the same. One can see that it's rather easy to do, using a low-flow setting and being careful to apply it from about 5 feet high on the trunk to about 6 inches above the ground. (Wish it had shown the user wearing goggles and a mask -- always a good idea when working with chemicals!) 2010
■ Beetles Save Needles, Powerpoint by Dr. Richard McDonald presented at SGH Hemlock Camp Meeting, June 2015
■ Blanton Forest in Harlan Kentucky -- Video produced by Kentucky Afield and Merril Flanary of the Kentucky Natural Lands Trust about efforts to save hemlocks in eastern Kentucky's Blanton Forest, May 2010
■ Controlling HWA in Cades Cove -- Video of Park forester Jesse Webster talking about the process of controlling the hemlock woolly adelgid in Cades Coves, produced by Knox News Sentinel, December 2010
■ Cox Conserves Heroes -- Nomination video for 2012 Cox award winner Donna Shearer, presented by Cox Enterprises in partnership with WSB-TV and the Trust for Public Lands, August 2012
■ Demise of the Hemlocks -- Personal video produced by Merry Croft of Fannin County for her family as a remembrance of the special place where they have lived and played among the hemlocks for three generations; shared with her kind permission. 2010.
■ Developing Hemlocks Resistant to HWA -- PowerPoint presentation prepared by K. L. F. Oten, L. N. Walker-Lane, R. M. Jetton, N. Kaur, B. Smith, J. Frampton, A. C. Cohen and F. P. Hain to provide an update on the progress made to develop a HWA-resistant hybrid hemlocks. 2011. Also see "Development of Resistant Hybrid Hemlocks" from 2010 and "New Hemlock Hybrid Withstands Killing Insect" from 2020.
■ Hemlock Deaths -- Video produced by Will Blozan, president of the Eastern Native Tree Society, taken from atop dead hemlock trees in Great Smoky Mountains National Park as part of an investigation to document the biggest of the eastern hemlock trees before they are lost forever. Summer 2007
■ Hope for the Hemlocks in North Carolina -- Slide presentation by Thom Green of Hemlock Restoration Initiative, presented at Hemlock Camp Meeting, May 2019
■ Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on Hemlock Forests -- Video from lecture by David Orwig of the Harvard Forest, delivered January 8th, 2008
■ Paddlers Hemlock Health Action Taskforce -- Slide presentation by Alex Harvey of P. H. H. A. T., presented by Hemlock Camp Meeting, May 2019. Also click here to see the PHHAT Documentary on YouTube.
■ Pesticides, Predators & Patch Cuts: Persistent Peril or Possible Promise for the Prized Eastern Hemlock -- Presentation by Dr. Bud Mayfield at Hemlock Camp Meeting, June 2016. Note: This is a large pdf file and may take a few moments to open or download.
■ Saving the Hemlock -- Video produced by Rhyne Piggott of USA Today about efforts of scientists and staff at Great Smoky Mountains National Park to save the hemlock tree from extinction in their park, May 2009
■ Second Biggest Hemlock Ever Documented -- Video prepared by Great Smoky Mountains Association © 2010
■ The Eastern Hemlock Tree -- A short mp4 video produced by Smithgall Woods and narrated by a member of Save Georgia's Hemlocks, providing an overview of the hemlock problem, current solutions, and ways people can help save the trees. 2018
■ The Quest for Adelgid-Resistant Hemlocks -- Slide presentation by Ben Smith of Forest Restoration Alliance, presented at Hemlock Camp Meeting 2018.
■ The Role of Biological Controls & Geospatial Data -- Slide presentation by Justin Ellis of North Georgia University, presented at Hemlock Camp Meeting 2017.
■ The State of Hemlocks and the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid -- Slide presentation by Will Blozan of Appalachian Arborists, presented at SGH Annual Meeting on July 14, 2013.
■ Wild by Law -- Film (54 min.) by Larry Hott, Diane Garey, Ken Chowder, Linda Hunt, Florentine Films., Direct Cinema Ltd. -- The story of the Wilderness Act of 1964 and the three men responsible for its passage: forester/philosopher Aldo Leopold, author of the bestselling A Sand County Almanac and the first to bring the word 'ecology' into standard usage; Bob Marshall, millionaire socialist and founder of the Wilderness Society; and Howard Zahniser, a tireless bureaucrat with a profound love of the wild places he seldom saw. Singly and together, these three fought against the current of American thought from the 1920s through the 1950s to attain what had once seemed an unimaginable victory. More than just the story of an historic struggle to preserve the natural world, Wild by law provides an invaluable overview of the roots of the environmental movement, offering a deeper understanding of one of the most important issues facing contemporary civilization.
Here are links to some valuable on-line resources and to some other nonprofit organizations we're aware of that have hemlock-saving goals, provide reliable hemlock-related information, and/or are actively engaged in the hemlocks vs. woolly adelgids battle. This list is by no means all-inclusive, so if you know of others that are relevant and would benefit our community, please let us know. And thanks!
MacKaye Trail Association
Project for Conservation of Hemlock Species in the Eastern United States
■ Chemical Product Labels and Material Safety Data Sheets
Native Tree Society
Pest Insect Photo Guide
■ Forest Pests of North America
■ Forest Pests of Northeastern U. S.
Council of Trout Unlimited
■ GA ForestWatch
■ GA Forestry Commission
Native Plant Society
and Exotic Species
Conservation Trust - GA
Tree Society --Tsuga Search Project
of Connecticut - hemlock articles
of Massachussetts - hemlock articles
of Georgia - hemlock articles
■ University of North Georgia - hemlock articles
S. Department of Agriculture - profile of hemlock woolly adelgid
S. Forest Service
© Save Georgia's Hemlocks